• subject
    "Crackling" effect

    A faux finish that makes the piece look old and antiqued.


  • subject
    Abrasive planer

    A planer in which wood is removed by large sandpaper belts


  • subject
    Accelerated aging

    A set of laboratory conditions designed to produce in a short time the results of normal aging. Usual factors included are temperature, light, oxygen and water. In recent years, the adhesives industry has come to rely more and more on the "oxygen bomb" test as an indicator of relative life expectancy of a given formulation.


  • subject
    Accelerated weathering

    A set of laboratory conditions to simulate in a short time the effects of natural weathering. Most adhesives are generally not subjected to the conditions that are normally considered under weathering tests.


  • subject
    Accelerator

    An ingredient used in small amounts to speed up the action of the hardener in a two part adhesive.


  • subject
    Acetone

    A very volatile and flammable solvent that is particularly useful for cleaning metal substrates.


  • subject
    ACGIH

    American Conference of Governmental Hygienists


  • subject
    Adhere

    To cause two surfaces to be held together by adhesion.


  • subject
    Adherend

    A body which is held to another body by an adhesive.


  • subject
    Adhesion

    The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action, or both.


  • subject
    Adhesion, mechanical

    Adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action.


  • subject
    Adhesion, specific

    Adhesion between surfaces that are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which give rise to cohesion.


  • subject
    Adhesive

    A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. Same as cement.


  • subject
    Adhesive failure

    Type of failure characterized by pulling the adhesive loose from the substrate.


  • subject
    Adhesive, assembly

    An adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together such as the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like.


  • subject
    Adhesive, cold-setting

    An adhesive that sets at temperature below 68°F (20°C).


  • subject
    Adhesive, contact

    An adhesive that is apparently dry to the touch and which will adhere to itself instantaneously upon contact; also called contact bond adhesive or dry bond adhesive.


  • subject
    Adhesive, dispersion

    A two phase system in which one phase is suspended in a liquid.


  • subject
    Adhesive, foamed

    An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.


  • subject
    Adhesive, heat activated

    A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky or fluid by application of heat or heat and pressure to the assembly.


  • subject
    Adhesive, hot melt

    An adhesive that is applied in a molten state and forms a bond on cooling to a solid state.


  • subject
    Adhesive, hot-setting

    An adhesive that requires a temperature at or above 100°C (212°F) to set.


  • subject
    Adhesive, intermediate temperature setting

    An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 31°-99°C (87°-211°F).


  • subject
    Adhesive, multiple layer

    A film adhesive with a different adhesive composition on each side; designed to bond dissimilar materials such as the core to face bond of a sandwich composite.


  • subject
    Adhesive, pressure sensitive

    A viscoelastic material which in solvent-free form remains permanently tacky. Such a material will adhere instantaneously to most solid surfaces with the application of very slight pressure.


  • subject
    Adhesive, room temperature setting

    An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 20°-30°C (68°-86°F).


  • subject
    Adhesive, separate application

    A term used to describe an adhesive consisting of two parts, one part being applied to one substrate and the other part to the other substrate and the two brought together to form a joint.


  • subject
    Adhesive, solvent

    An adhesive having a volatile organic liquid as a vehicle.


  • subject
    Adhesive, solvent activated

    A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky just prior to use by application of a solvent.


  • subject
    Adsorption

    The action of a body in condensing and holding gases and other materials at its surface.


  • subject
    AFMA

    American Furniture Manufacturers Association


  • subject
    Aging

    The progressive change in the chemical and physical properties of a sealant or adhesive.


  • subject
    Aliphatic resin glue

    Yellow glues which provide more grab for shorter clamp times, and offer better water resistance and heat resistance than traditional white glues


  • subject
    Alligatoring

    Cracking of a surface into segments so that it resembles the hide of an alligator.


  • subject
    Ambient

    Usual or surrounding conditions.


  • subject
    Ambient temperature

    Temperature of the air surrounding the object under construction.


  • subject
    Ampere

    A unit of electric current. One ampere flows through a conductor having a resistance of one ohm, when there is one-volt difference between the ends of the circuit. (A.)


  • subject
    Anaerobic

    Adhesives that cure in the absence of oxygen.


  • subject
    Aniline dye

    Any of a large number of synthetic dyes derived from aniline, usually obtained from coal tar.


  • subject
    ANSI

    American National Standards Institute.


  • subject
    Application temperature

    The temperature at which a bond is made. While it may reflect the temperature of the glue or adhesive at the time it is applied, it mostly represents the temperature of the air and the materials being joined. Ultimately, because the adhesive will dry or cure at the temperature of the materials surrounding it, the application temperature most specifically reflects that temperature.


  • subject
    Arc

    A self-sustaining visible flow or discharge of electricity through air that will result in a burn if the flow is through a material of normal insulating properties.


  • subject
    Asphalt

    Naturally occurring mineral pitch or bitumen.


  • subject
    Assembly

    A group of materials or parts, including adhesive, which has been placed together for bonding or which has been bonded together.


  • subject
    Assembly Time

    Also called Open Time. The time period from the application of adhesive until the final application of pressure. This term includes both Closed and Open Assembly Times.


  • subject
    A-stage

    An early stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is fusible and still soluble in certain liquids.


  • subject
    Asthma

    A disease characterized by recurrent attacks of wheezing and shortness of breath.


  • subject
    ASTM

    American Society for Testing and Materials.


  • subject
    Auto Tune

    A circuit installed in a RF generator designed to maintain the optimum amount of power during a RF cure cycle.


  • subject
    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Blocks

    Precast, manufactured building stone made of all-natural raw materials. It is an economical, environmentally friendly, cellular, lightweight, structural material that provides thermal and acoustic insulation as well as fire and termite resistance.


  • subject
    Automatic Edging Saw

    Automatic Edging Saw A straight line rip saw used to edge one side of the blank before it is ripped on the rip saw. This is accomplished by using canted, automatic rollers to feed the stock through the saw after it has been planed.


  • subject
    Backer

    A veneer or synthetic face bonded to the backside of a panel to ensure dimensional stability.


  • subject
    Balanced Construction

    A plywood construction in which construction on one side of the panel is similar or identical to the other side.


  • subject
    Batch

    The manufactured unit or blend of two or more units of the same formulation and processing.


  • subject
    Binder

    A component of an adhesive composition that is primarily responsible for the adhesive forces that hold the two bodies together.


  • subject
    Bio-based products

    Commercial or industrial products (other than food or feed) that use biological, renewable, domestic or agricultural products. For example, soy-based products & biodiesel fuel.


  • subject
    Blister

    An elevation of the surface of a substrate, somewhat resembling in shape a blister on the human skin; its boundaries may be indefinitely outlined and it may have burst and become flattened.


  • subject
    Blocking

    An undesired adhesion between touching layers of material such as occurs under moderate pressure during storage or use.


  • subject
    Bond

    The attachment at an interface between substrate and adhesive, or sealant.


  • subject
    Bond face

    The part or surface of a building component which serves as a substrate for an adhesive


  • subject
    Bond Strength

    The unit load applied in tension, compression, flexure, peel, impact, cleavage, or shear, that is required to break an adhesive assembly with failure occurring in or near the plane of the bond.


  • subject
    Bond, to

    To join materials together using an adhesive.


  • subject
    Brownfield

    Abandoned, idol or underused industrial or commercial buildings where expansion or development is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.


  • subject
    B-stage

    An intermediate stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material softens when heated and swells when in contact with certain liquids, but may not entirely fuse or dissolve. The resin in an uncured thermosetting adhesive is usually in this stage.


  • subject
    BTU

    British Thermal Unit. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water 1°F.


  • subject
    Calorie

    The quantity of heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1°C.


  • subject
    Capacitor

    Plates separated by an insulating material that can store electricity.


  • subject
    Capacitor

    Plates separated by an insulating material that can store electricity.


  • subject
    CARB (California Air Resources Board)

    The “clean air agency” for the state of California. Established originally in 1967, it is a governing board made up of eleven members appointed by the State’s governor, and the chairman is the only full-time member. It is known for setting extremely stringent standards for air quality.


  • subject
    CAS Number

    Chemical Abstracts Service. An assigned registry number to identify a material.


  • subject
    Catalyst

    Substance added in small quantities to promote a reaction, while remaining unchanged itself.


  • subject
    Cellular material

    A material containing many small cells dispersed throughout it. The cells may be either open or closed.


  • subject
    Certified Wood

    See FSC Certified Wood


  • subject
    CFR

    Code of Federal Regulations (US)


  • subject
    Chalking

    Chalky white appearance of a layer of glue which has dried too cold. A glue which dries below this critical "chalk point" does not knit together properly and the resulting bond is likely to fail.


  • subject
    Checking

    The formation of slight breaks or cracks in the surface of the adhesive.


  • subject
    Chemical cure

    Curing by chemical reaction. Usually involves the cross-linking of a polymer.


  • subject
    Clamp Carrier

    A series of cold clamps arranged and used like a Ferris wheel. This permits a large number of panels to be clamped and stored within a small area.


  • subject
    Clamp time

    The time that the substrates being glued together need to remain clamped. The period of time required for a joint to gain enough strength to permit it to be removed from pressure with no decrease in long-term strength.


  • subject
    Clamping Force

    The total force exerted by a clamping device on a glue line.


  • subject
    Closed Assembly Time

    Period of assembly time when the adhesive film is not exposed to the air, but prior to the time that pressure has been applied.


  • subject
    Closed cell

    A cell enclosed by its walls and therefore not connected to other cells.


  • subject
    Co-axial Cable

    Two concentric conductors separated by an insulating material.


  • subject
    Coefficient of expansion

    The coefficient of linear expansion is the ratio of the change in length per degree to the length at 0°C.


  • subject
    Cohesion

    The molecular attraction which holds the body of an adhesive together. The internal strength of an adhesive.


  • subject
    Cohesive failure

    The failure characterized by pulling the body of an adhesive apart.


  • subject
    Cohesive strength

    The ability of the adhesive to stick within itself during the wet stage. The term cohesive strength also applies to the internal strength of dried adhesive.


  • subject
    Coil

    A conductor wound into a helical/configuration of uniform cross-section.


  • subject
    Cold Press

    A hydraulic or pneumatic press designed to press face-glued or veneered panels without the addition of heat.


  • subject
    Cold pressing

    A bonding operation in which an assembly is subjected to pressure without the application of heat.


  • subject
    Combustible

    Materials that will burn.


  • subject
    Condensation

    A chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine with the separation (or release) of water or some other simple substance. If a polymer is formed, the process is called polycondensation.


  • subject
    Conductor

    Material having low resistance to the movement of an electric current.


  • subject
    Consistency

    The property of a liquid adhesive by virtue of which it tends to resist deformation.


  • subject
    Crazing

    Fine cracks that may extend in a network on or under the surface of or through a layer of adhesive.


  • subject
    Creep

    The deformation of a body with time under constant load. Also called cold flow.


  • subject
    Crossband

    A veneer oriented at right angles to a face veneer used to ensure dimensional stability in a plywood panel


  • subject
    CSPC

    Consumer Products Safety Commission (US)


  • subject
    C-stage

    The final stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is relatively insoluble and infusible. Certain thermosetting resins in a fully cured adhesive layer are in this stage.


  • subject
    Cure

    To set up or harden by means of a chemical reaction.


  • subject
    Cure Cycle

    The period of time that a glue line is being cured in radio frequency.


  • subject
    Cure time

    Time required to effect a complete cure at a given temperature.


  • subject
    Curing agent

    A chemical that is added to effect a cure in a polymer. Same as hardener.


  • subject
    Curing time

    The time needed to cure or "set" an adhesive.


  • subject
    Cutoff Saw

    The first machining operation in a typical rough mill. The cutoff saw cuts to rough length, and defect cuts, with a minimum of lumber and labor costs.


  • subject
    Cutting Angle

    The angle between the face of a cutting edge and a plane perpendicular to its cutting direction.


  • subject
    CWA

    Clean Water Act


  • subject
    Cycle

    The change of an alternating flow of current from Zero to a positive peak, returning through Zero to a negative peak and back to Zero.


  • subject
    Delamination

    The separation of layers in a laminate because of failure of the adhesive, either in the adhesive itself or at the interface between the adhesive and the substrate, or because of cohesive failure of the substrate.


  • subject
    Density

    Ratio of weight (mass) to volume of a material - ie grams per cubic centimeter or pounds per gallon.


  • subject
    Dielectric

    An insulating material.


  • subject
    Diffuse Porous

    Hardwood without distinct passages or pores in the annual growth rings (i.e. maple, poplar, and cherry).


  • subject
    Diluent

    An ingredient usually added to an adhesive to reduce the concentration of bonding materials.


  • subject
    Direct current

    An electric current flowing in one direction only (DC).


  • subject
    Doctor (bar or blade)

    Device that controls the amount of adhesive applied.


  • subject
    DOT

    Department of Transportation (US).


  • subject
    Dowel

    A cylindrical pin used to reinforce the strength of an assembly joint.


  • subject
    Dry

    To change the physical state of an adhesive or a substrate by the loss of solvent constituents by evaporation or absorption, or both.


  • subject
    Dwell Cycle

    The period of time after a panel has been cured in radio frequency, but before pressure is released to allow additional cure and equalizing.


  • subject
    Edge gluing

    The bonding of the edge grain of wood strips to make a wider board.


  • subject
    Elasticity

    The ability of a material to return to its original shape after removal of a load.


  • subject
    Elastomer

    A rubbery material which returns to approximately its original dimensions in a short time after a relatively large amount of deformation.


  • subject
    Electrodes

    Conductors, usually strips or plates used to carry the radio frequency power to the surfaces of the material to be heated.


  • subject
    Emulsion

    A dispersion of fine particles in water.


  • subject
    Energy Star

    Introduced in 1992 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy efficient products to help reduce greenhouse emissions by identifying energy efficient products. Originally designed for computers and monitors, it has now expanded to include office products, major appliances, lighting, home electronics and more.


  • subject
    Engineered Lumber

    Generally engineered lumber is construction materials designed to reduce the amount of material needed for framing a building. By designing away from full-dimension sawn lumber, less large growth trees need to be cut and smaller dimension lumber can be assembled in various configurations to span long distances with equal or superior strength.


  • subject
    EPA

    Environmental Protection Agency (US).


  • subject
    Equilibrium Moisture Content

    The moisture content eventually attained in wood exposed to a given level of relative humidity and temperature.


  • subject
    Evaporation Rate

    The rate at which a material will vaporize compared with a known substance.


  • subject
    Exothermic

    A chemical reaction which gives off heat.


  • subject
    Face Gluing

    Gluing of heavy wood stock on the wide face to attain a thicker panel.


  • subject
    Failure, adhesive

    Rupture of an adhesive bond such that the separation appears to be at the adhesive substrate interface.


  • subject
    Farad

    A unit by which capacitors are rated (f).


  • subject
    Fatigue failure

    Failure of a material due to rapid cyclic deformation.


  • subject
    Fiber Saturation Point

    The moisture content of wood at which all unbound moisture has been eliminated. This is typically about 30% Moisture Content.


  • subject
    Filler

    Finely ground material added to an adhesive to change or improve certain properties.


  • subject
    Fillet

    That portion of an adhesive which fills the corner or angle formed where two substrates are joined.


  • subject
    Finished Dimension

    The dimension of a furniture part after it has been machined to its final size either by a molder or a trim operation in the rough end.


  • subject
    Fire Diamond

    A hazard rating system of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Four Classes of entries: Health, Flammability, Reactivity, and Specific Hazard. Frequently seen on drums.


  • subject
    Fire Point

    Lowest temperature that a liquid will produce sufficient vapor to ignite and continue to burn


  • subject
    Flammable

    Describes any material that will ignite easily and burn rapidly.


  • subject
    Flash point

    The lowest temperature at which the vapors being given off by a substance can be ignited.


  • subject
    Flat Saw

    A type of saw that uses alternating flat teeth, usually 36, for ripping on the straight-line rip saw.


  • subject
    Flat Sawn

    Grain orientation in wood in which annual rings are approximately parallel to the wide surface. Also called Tangential or Plain Sawn.


  • subject
    Flow

    Movement of an adhesive during the bonding process before the adhesive is set.


  • subject
    Freeze/thaw stability

    The ability of a product to remain usable after it has been frozen and thawed.


  • subject
    Frequency

    The number of cycles in one second, generally measured in Hertz (Hz).


  • subject
    FSC Certified Wood

    The Forest Stewardship Council is a non-profit organization that certifies various forests around the world exhibiting good sustainability and management practices based on a specific management criteria. The wood from these forests is often quickly renewable, often using hybrid timber and advanced forestry methods. Other forests are simply carefully managed by limiting the impact on both the environment and the people and demonstrating a social benefit in the process.


  • subject
    Gang Saw

    A type of machine that uses a series of saws on the same arbor to rip lumber. This is accomplished by using spacers for each of the saw blades to give the ripped blank the desired width for each cut on the arbor.


  • subject
    Gel

    A semisolid system consisting of a network of solid aggregates in which liquid is held.


  • subject
    Generator

    The device for converting power line frequency to radio frequency.


  • subject
    Glue

    Originally, a hard gelatin obtained from hides, tendons, cartilage, bones, etc. of animals. Also, an adhesive prepared from this substance by heating with water. Through general use the term is now synonymous with the term "adhesive."


  • subject
    Glue line

    The layer of adhesive that attaches two substrates. Same as bond line.


  • subject
    Glue Reel

    A series cold clamps arranged and used like a Ferris wheel. This permits a large number of panels to be clamped and stored within a small area.


  • subject
    Green Building

    A worldwide movement to promote the use of environmentally friendly products & practices in de-construction, construction, remodeling & repair. The goal is to match materials and activities to building design so that the overall environmental impact is minimized as much as possible


  • subject
    Green Roof

    This is a growing roof system utilizing a specialized undercarriage for the waterproof membrane and excess water removal. Various types of vegetation are set in to a special growing media and help to replace the displaced vegetation in the building footprint as well as greatly reduce the heat island effect of a roof, especially in hot climates. Green roofs can regulate the flow of excessive storm water by metering the release of the water from the roof area.


  • subject
    Green strength

    This refers to the relative cohesive strength an adhesive, glue, or mastic has in the wet state. Same as green grab or initial tack. See also tack.


  • subject
    Grid Current Meter

    An electrical meter placed in the plate circuit of a RF generator to measure electrical current.


  • subject
    Gum

    Any of a class of colloidal substances, exuded by or prepared from plants, sticky when moist, composed of complex carbohydrates and organic acids, which are soluble or swell in water.


  • subject
    Hardener

    A substance or mixture of substances added to an adhesive to promote or control the curing reaction by taking part in it. The term is also used to designate a substance added to control the degree of hardness of the cured fill. Same as curing agent. See also catalyst.


  • subject
    Hardwood

    Wood from deciduous trees (i.e. oak, maple, cherry, etc.)


  • subject
    HBA (Home Building Association)

    State and local associations of home builders who have organized through the NAHB.


  • subject
    Heeling

    A mistake that occurs when the saw blade is poorly aligned. The saw is cutting at an angle as it travels through the wood, causing the back to come in contact with the material on one side.


  • subject
    HMIS

    Hazardous Materials Information System. A hazard rating system of the National Paint and Coating Association (NPCA).


  • subject
    Hollow Joints

    A machine problem caused by poor alignment of the feed rollers in the head of the straight-line rip. The joint is unable to fit intimately, even when sufficient pressure is applied to the glue joint.


  • subject
    Hot electrode

    The electrically "alive" electrode as distinguished from the "ground" electrode.


  • subject
    Hot press

    A press designed for laminating or veneering in which the panel is placed between heated platens.


  • subject
    HPVA

    Hardwood Plywood and Veneer Association.


  • subject
    Hygroscopic

    Readily adsorbing moisture from the air.


  • subject
    IAQ (Indoor Air Quality)

    As buildings become tighter, indoor air quality suffers unless specific measures are taken to improve the exchange of fresh air.


  • subject
    IARC

    International Agency for Research on Cancer.


  • subject
    Impedance

    The opposition a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current (Z).


  • subject
    Inductance

    The property that opposes a change in existing current flow which occurs only when the current is changing.


  • subject
    Inflammable

    Capable of being easily set on fire and burning violently.


  • subject
    Inhibitor

    A substance that slows down chemical reaction. Inhibitors are sometimes used in certain types of adhesives to prolong storage or working life. Same as retarder.


  • subject
    Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs)

    Forms for poured concrete walls, that stay in place as a permanent part of the wall assembly. The forms, made of foam insulation or other insulating material, are either pre-formed interlocking blocks or separate panels connected with plastic ties. The left-in-place forms not only provide a continuous insulation and sound barrier, but also a backing for drywall on the inside, and stucco, lap siding, or brick on the outside.


  • subject
    Interface

    The common boundary surface between two substances.


  • subject
    IR Pyrometer

    A device designed to measure surface temperature by Infrared emissions.


  • subject
    J Roller

    A hand roller used to apply pressure on a bonded surface such as a plastic laminate.


  • subject
    Joint

    The location at which two substrates are held together with a layer of adhesive.


  • subject
    Joint, lap

    A joint made by placing one substrate partly over another and bonding together the overlapped portions.


  • subject
    Joint, scarf

    A joint made by cutting away similar angular segments of two substrates and bonding the substrates with the cut areas fitted together.


  • subject
    Joint, starved

    A joint that has an insufficient amount of adhesive to produce a satisfactory bond.


  • subject
    Kiln

    A heated chamber for drying lumber. Temperature, humidity, and air circulation are all controlled within the drying area.


  • subject
    Kilo-

    Prefix meaning one thousand (K).


  • subject
    Knife Planer

    A planer in which wood is removed by rotating knives.


  • subject
    Laminate, (noun)

    A product made by bonding together two or more layers of material or materials.


  • subject
    Laminate, (verb)

    To unite layers of material with adhesive.


  • subject
    Laminated, cross

    A laminate in which some of the layers of material are oriented at right angles to the remaining layers with respect to the grain or strongest direction in tension.


  • subject
    Laminated, parallel

    A laminate in which all of the layers of material are oriented approximately parallel with respect to the grain or strongest direction in tension.


  • subject
    Landfill

    Disposal of waste products at a controlled location that is sealed and buried under earth.


  • subject
    LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design)

    A rating system developed by the USGBC (US Green Building Council) that measures a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection, and indoor environmental quality.


  • subject
    Legging

    The drawing of filaments or strings when adhesive-bonded substrates are separated.


  • subject
    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

    Models the complex interaction between a product and the environment from cradle to grave. It is also known as Life Cycle Analysis or Ecobalance.


  • subject
    Load

    The material being heated.


  • subject
    Longitudinal Grain

    Grain orientation in which wood fibers are parallel to the length of the tree.


  • subject
    Lumber

    Raw material obtained from the dry kiln - random width, rough boards.


  • subject
    Lumber Yield

    The percent of usable, defect-free lumber that can be cut from a rough cutting, board, or bundle of lumber.


  • subject
    LVL

    Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) construction consisting of parallel veneer laminations.


  • subject
    Matching network

    A combining of capacitors and/or inductors used for bringing the tuning into resonance.


  • subject
    Matrix

    The part of an adhesive which surrounds or engulfs embedded filler or reinforcing particles and filaments.


  • subject
    MDF

    Medium Density Fiberboard.


  • subject
    MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard)

    An engineered panel product that can be used for such things such as cabinets and wall panels while other MDF products can be shaped into moldings, ceiling tiles, flooring, interior doors and a variety of other uses. Exterior grade MDF can be made into garage doors, sheds and other outdoor applications.


  • subject
    Mega-

    Prefix meaning one million (M).


  • subject
    Membrane Press

    A hot press design which permits laminates or veneer to be glued to a surface that is not flat, by using a rubber membrane that is inflated with a hot fluid.


  • subject
    Micro

    Prefix meaning one millionth part (m).


  • subject
    Milli

    Prefix meaning one thousandth part (m) (10-3).


  • subject
    Modifier

    Any chemically inert ingredient added to an adhesive formulation that changes its properties.


  • subject
    Moisture Content

    Percent moisture content is equal to the weight of water divided by the weight of bone-dry wood x 100.


  • subject
    Moisture Meter

    A small electronic device designed to determine the moisture content of wood stock.


  • subject
    Monomer

    A relatively simple compound which can react to form a polymer.


  • subject
    MSDS

    Material Safety Data Sheet.


  • subject
    MSGL

    Pounds per 1000 square feet glue line.


  • subject
    Mucilage

    An adhesive prepared from a gum and water. Also in a more general sense, a liquid adhesive which has a low order of bonding strength.


  • subject
    NAHB (National Association of Home Builders)

    A Washington, DC-based trade association that helps promote the policies that make housing a national priority. NAHB has membership over 235,000 of home-builders and/or re-modelers. NAHB also has developed the “NAHB’s Model Green Home Building Guidelines” designed as a toolkit for builders and HBAs (Home Building Associations) to engage in green building practices.


  • subject
    Nano

    Prefix meaning one-billionth.


  • subject
    NFPA

    National Fire Prevention Association.


  • subject
    NIOSH

    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.


  • subject
    Nip Roll

    A pressure system designed to apply a large amount of pressure for an instant. This system is frequently used for hot melt, fast-set adhesives, or contact cements.


  • subject
    Nonflammable

    Incapable of being easily ignited or burned.


  • subject
    Non-porous substrate

    A substrate that is not permeable by air, water, etc.


  • subject
    NWWDA

    National Wood Window and Door Association.


  • subject
    Ohm

    Unit of resistance (R).


  • subject
    Open Assembly Time

    Period of assembly time when the adhesive film is exposed to the air.


  • subject
    Open time

    Alternate term for assembly time, the time period from the application of the adhesive until the final application of pressure.The time that the glue may be left open to the air after application. Same as working time. Same as open assembly time.


  • subject
    OSHA

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration.


  • subject
    Oxygen bomb test

    A special aging test given to adhesives. Five hundred hours exposure to the condition in this test generally indicates whether a product will provide a good deal of service over a long range period of time.


  • subject
    Parallel Heating

    Radio Frequency Press configuration in which RF current is conducted along the glue lines in edge-gluing presses. The flow of the RF current is parallel with the glue lines.


  • subject
    Particleboard

    A manufactured core material consisting of wood particles and a binder bonded under heat and pressure.


  • subject
    Passive Solar

    Refers to the use of the sun’s energy for heating and cooling a structure. It takes advantage of natural energy without requiring maintenance or mechanical systems.


  • subject
    Paste

    An adhesive composition having a characteristic plastic-type consistency, that is, a high order or yield value, such as that of a paste prepared by heating a mixture of starch and water and subsequently cooling the hydrolyzed product.


  • subject
    Peel test

    A test of an adhesive using one rigid and one flexible substrate. The flexible material is folded back (usually 180°) and the substrates are peeled apart. Strength is measured in pounds per inch of width.


  • subject
    PEL

    Permissible Exposure Limit.


  • subject
    Percent moisture content

    Percent moisture content is equal to the weight of water divided by the weight of bone dry wood x 100.


  • subject
    Percent Solids

    The percentage of non-volatile material contained in a liquid.


  • subject
    Percent Volatile

    Percentage of a liquid or solid by volume that will evaporate at ambient temperature.


  • subject
    Permanent set

    The amount of deformation which remains in an adhesive after removal of a load.


  • subject
    Perpendicular Heating

    Radio Frequency Press configuration in which RF current is conducted through a plywood panel resulting in mass heating. The flow of current is perpendicular to the glue lines.


  • subject
    pH

    Value that represents the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.


  • subject
    Phenolic resin

    A thermosetting resin. Usually formed by the reaction of a phenol with formaldehyde.


  • subject
    Pick-up roll

    A spreading device where the roll for picking up the adhesive runs in a reservoir of adhesive.


  • subject
    Pico

    Prefix meaning one trillionth.


  • subject
    Pitch

    The residue which remains after the distillation of oil and so forth from raw petroleum.


  • subject
    Plain sawn

    Grain orientation in wood in which annual rings are approximately parallel to the wide surface. Also called tangential or flat sawn.


  • subject
    Planer

    A machine used to prepare lumber for the cut-to-length operation by dressing the face and backside of the board. The purpose of the rough planer is to give the stock a uniform thickness so that production and quality in subsequent operations will be improved.


  • subject
    Planking

    A small change in height of adjacent staves in a panel caused by changes in moisture content. Sometimes referred as step joints.


  • subject
    Plasticizer

    A material incorporated in an adhesive to increase its flexibility, workability, or distensibility. The addition of the plasticizer may cause a reduction in melt viscosity, lower the temperature of the second-order transition, or lower the elastic modulus of the solidified adhesive.


  • subject
    Plate Current Meter

    An electrical meter placed in the grid circuit of a RF generator to measure electrical current.


  • subject
    Plywood

    A construction involving multiple (usually an odd number) layers of wood veneer into a panel. The grain direction of alternate plies is frequently alternated to enhance dimensional stability.


  • subject
    Polymer

    A compound formed by the reaction of simple molecules having functional groups which permit their combination to proceed to high molecular weights under suitable conditions. Polymers may be formed by polymerization (addition polymer) or poly-condensation (condensation polymer). When two or more monomers are involved, the product is called a copolymer.


  • subject
    Polymerization

    Chemical reaction in which one or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules.


  • subject
    Polyurethane

    Any of various resins, widely varying in flexibility, used in tough chemical-resistant coatings, adhesives, and foams.


  • subject
    Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) glue

    Any glue consisting chiefly of polyvinyl acetate polymer. This category includes both traditional white glues and yellow aliphatic resin glues. Although PVA glues can vary in strength, flexibility, water resistance, heat resistance and sandability, they are generally non-toxic. All PVA glues are prone to "creep" or slowly stretch under long term loads, and are not recommended for structural applications.


  • subject
    Porous substrate

    A substrate that is permeable by air, water, etc.


  • subject
    Post cure, noun

    A treatment (normally involving heat) applied to an adhesive assembly following the initial cure to modify specific properties.


  • subject
    Post cure, verb

    To expose an adhesive assembly to an additional cure, following the initial cure, for the purpose of modifying specific properties.


  • subject
    Post-Consumer Recycled Content

    Many products can be manufactured using “post-consumer” materials such as plastic, fiber, wood, glass, etc. Recycling these materials saves them from taking up space in a landfill.


  • subject
    Pot life

    The period of time during which an adhesive, after mixing with catalyst, solvent, or other compounding ingredients, remains suitable for use.


  • subject
    PPE

    Personal Protective Equipment.


  • subject
    PPM

    Parts per million.


  • subject
    Pre-Consumer Recycled Content

    Also called post-industrial, refers to the recycling of industrial or manufacturing by-products. For example, using scraps from a lumber mill to make MDF (medium density fiberboard) or OSB (oriented strand board).


  • subject
    Press time

    The period required for a joint to be held under pressure.


  • subject
    Primer

    A coating applied to a surface, prior to the application of an adhesive, to improve the performance of the bond.


  • subject
    Primer

    A coating applied to a surface, prior to the application of an adhesive, to improve the performance of the bond.


  • subject
    psi

    Pounds per square inch.


  • subject
    psia

    Pounds per square inch absolute.


  • subject
    Pyrometer

    One of several devices designed to measure surface temperature.


  • subject
    Q

    The measurement of resonance or frequency selectivity


  • subject
    Quarter sawn

    Grain orientation in wood in which annual rings are approximately perpendicular to the wide surface. Also called Radial Sawn.


  • subject
    Radial Grain

    Grain orientation in wood in which annual rings are approximately perpendicular to the wide surface. Also called Quarter Sawn.


  • subject
    Radio Frequency

    Frequencies from 10 Kilohertz to 3,000 Gigahertz.


  • subject
    Radio Frequency Gluing System

    Radio Frequency Gluing is a process in which high radio frequency waves are used to heat substrates, causing the adhesive between them to dry.


  • subject
    Random Width

    Lumber ripped to no specific width. Used as edge glued stock. Defecting is done here as well as in specific width ripping.


  • subject
    Reactance

    Opposition to the flow of alternating current.


  • subject
    Reactive Material

    A chemical substance or material that will vigorously polymerize or decompose.


  • subject
    Reactivity

    Tendency of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction with itself or another material with the release of energy.


  • subject
    REL

    Recommended Exposure Limit set by NIOSH.


  • subject
    Release paper

    A sheet, serving as a protectant and/or carrier for an adhesive film or mass, which is easily removed from the film or mass prior to use.


  • subject
    Resin

    A solid, semisolid, or pseudosolid organic material that has an indefinite and often high molecular weight, exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress, usually has a softening or melting range, and usually fractures conchoidally.


  • subject
    Resin

    A solid, semisolid, or pseudosolid organic material that has an indefinite and often high molecular weight, exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress, usually has a softening or melting range, and usually fractures conchoidally.


  • subject
    Resistance

    The opposition to current flow through a material measured in Ohms.


  • subject
    Resistance

    The opposition to current flow through a material measured in Ohms.


  • subject
    Resonance

    A circuit condition where the inductive and capacitive reactance or impedance are in balance.


  • subject
    Resonance

    A circuit condition where the inductive and capacitive reactance or impedance are in balance.


  • subject
    Ring Porous

    Hardwood with distinct passages or pores in the annual growth rings such as oak.


  • subject
    Rosin

    A resin obtained as a residue in the distillation of crude turpentine from the sap of the pine tree (gum rosin) or from an extract of the stumps and other parts of the tree (wood rosin).


  • subject
    Rough Dimension

    The dimension of the part after specific ripping. The part will be larger than its finished length and width to allow for finish machining.


  • subject
    Sandability

    Sandability is a relative term used to explain the performance of dried glue when sanded. Good sandability is achieved when glue that has been sanded does not gum up the sanding belt.


  • subject
    SARA

    Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act.


  • subject
    Saw Kerf

    The saw blade thickness taken out by the saw as it travels through the rough stock. Saw kerfs are usually 1/8, 3/16, 1/4, and 5/16.


  • subject
    Self-vulcanizing

    Pertaining to an adhesive that undergoes vulcanization without the application of heat.


  • subject
    Sensitization

    A state of immune response in which further exposure elicits an immune or allergic response.


  • subject
    Service temperature

    A range of temperatures to which a bond or assembly made with a particular glue or adhesive can be safely exposed. While the lower end of that range may reflect the fact that some adhesive products can become brittle if they get too cold, the upper end generally reflects either the temperature at which the product may soften or weaken to the degree that it can fail due to lack of strength, or the temperature at which the product may begin to become subject to degradation.


  • subject
    Set

    To convert an adhesive into a fixed or hardened state by chemical or physical action, such as condensation, polymerization, oxidation, vulcanization, gelation, hydration, or evaporation of volatile constituents.


  • subject
    Set time

    The period of time required to attain handling strength.


  • subject
    Shelf lfie

    The period of time, usually beginning with the date of manufacture, during which a stored adhesive will remain effective or useful. Same as storage life.


  • subject
    Shiner

    A spot that develops when painting over caulking is that appears glossier than the surrounding areas.


  • subject
    Shrinkage

    Percentage weight loss under specified conditions.


  • subject
    Side Clearance

    The amount of clearance needed for the saw to cut through without causing friction between the saw tooth and the stock. This is accomplished by tapering the carbide tooth from the top of the carbide, and to the back, where it is brazed to the saw body.


  • subject
    Sizing

    The process of applying a material on a surface in order to fill pores and thus reduce the absorption of the subsequently applied adhesive or coating or to otherwise modify the surface properties of the substrate to improve the adhesion. Also, the material used for this purpose.


  • subject
    Slippage

    The movement of substrates with respect to each other during the bonding process.


  • subject
    Softwood

    Wood from evergreen trees (i.e. pine, fir, hemlock, and spruce).


  • subject
    Solids content

    The percentage by weight of the non-volatile matter in an adhesive.


  • subject
    Solvent

    Liquid in which another substance can be dissolved.


  • subject
    Solvent

    Any substance which is capable of dissolving another without chemically reacting with it. Often accompanied by a strong odor.


  • subject
    Specific Gravity

    A dimensionless unit of density in which the weight of a known volume of a material is divided by the weight of an equal volume of water.


  • subject
    Specific Heat

    The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of a mass of material as compared with the same amount of water.


  • subject
    Specific Width

    Stock that is ripped to a rough width specified on the route sheet. Used as a dimension part in the furniture being manufactured.


  • subject
    Speed of set

    A series of tests run to determine how fast a given glue can build strength under ideal conditions.


  • subject
    Speed of Set

    The rate at which an adhesive attains handling strength


  • subject
    Speed of set test

    A series of tests run to determine how fast a given glue can build strength under ideal conditions.


  • subject
    Spread

    The quantity of adhesive per unit joint area. Single spread refers to application of adhesive to only one substrate of a joint. Double spread refers to application of adhesive to both substrates of a joint.


  • subject
    Square

    A face glued construction that is approximately squared in cross section that will be turned on a lathe.


  • subject
    Squeeze out

    Adhesive pressed out at the bond line due to pressure applied on the substrates.


  • subject
    Stability

    The ability of a material to remain unchanged.


  • subject
    Steam Blows

    An internal delamination in a hot- or radio frequency-cured panel caused by an internal buildup of steam.


  • subject
    STEL

    Short tern exposure limit.


  • subject
    Step joint

    A small change in height of adjacent staves in a panel caused by changes in moisture content. Also known as planking.


  • subject
    storage life

    The period of time during which a packaged adhesive can be stored under specified temperature conditions and remain suitable for use.


  • subject
    Straight Line Rip Saw

    The machine used to rip boards to specified and random widths. Its purpose is to cut to width, rip out defects, and machine straight edges for gluing, with a minimum of waste and labor costs.


  • subject
    Straw Bale

    A building method that uses straw bales as structural elements, insulation, or both. Straw is a renewable resource that acts as excellent insulation and is fairly easy to build with.


  • subject
    Stray-field heating

    A heating method where the effect is not directly between the ground and "hot" electrode.


  • subject
    Stray-field heating

    Radio Frequency curing system in which both electrodes are on the same side of the glue joint. Stray field heating is commonly used in the "hand held" units.


  • subject
    Strength, dry

    The strength of an adhesive joint determined immediately after drying under specified conditions or after a period of conditioning in the standard laboratory atmosphere.


  • subject
    Strength, wet

    The strength of an adhesive joint determined immediately after removal from a liquid in which it has been immersed under specified conditions of time, temperature, and pressure.


  • subject
    Stress

    Force per unit area, usually expressed in pounds per square inch (psi).


  • subject
    Stress relaxation

    Reduction in stress in a material that is held at a constant deformation for an extended time.


  • subject
    Stringiness

    The property of an adhesive that results in the formation of filaments or threads when adhesive transfer surfaces are separated.


  • subject
    Structural Adhesive

    A bonding agent used for transferring required loads between substrates exposed to service environments typical for the structure involved.


  • subject
    Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)

    Panels of thick foam (polystyrene or polyurethane) sandwiched between two layers of OSB, plywood, or fiber-cement.


  • subject
    Substrate

    A material upon the surface of which an adhesive-containing substance is spread for any purpose, such as bonding or coating. A broader term than adhered.


  • subject
    Sunken Joint

    A depression at the joint between two pieces of wood caused by machining of the panel before the joint has fully cured.


  • subject
    Surface preparation

    A physical and /or chemical preparation of a substrate to render it suitable for adhesive joining. Same as substrate preparation or pre-bond preparation.


  • subject
    Tack

    The property of an adhesive that enables it to form a bond of measurable strength immediately after adhesive and substrate are brought into contact under low pressure. Same as aggressive tack.


  • subject
    Tack range

    The period of time in which an adhesive will remain in the tacky-dry condition after application to a substrate, under specified conditions of temperature and humidity.


  • subject
    Tack, dry

    The property of certain adhesives, particularly non-vulcanizing rubber adhesives, to adhere on contact to themselves at a stage in the evaporation of volatile constituents, even though they seem to dry to the touch.


  • subject
    Tack-dry

    Pertaining to the condition of an adhesive when the volatile constituents have evaporated or been absorbed sufficiently to leave it in a desired sticky state.


  • subject
    Tackiness

    The stickiness of the surface of a sealant or adhesive.


  • subject
    Tangential Grain

    Grain orientation in wood in which annual rings are approximately parallel to the wide surface. Also called Flat or Plain Sawn.


  • subject
    Tankless Water Heater

    Tankless water heaters provide hot water at a preset temperature when needed without storage, thereby reducing or eliminating standby losses.


  • subject
    Tannic acid

    A compound that is most commonly found in oak, cherry, cypress and redwood trees.


  • subject
    Tear strength

    The load required to tear apart a sealant specimen.


  • subject
    Teeth

    The resultant surface irregularities or projections formed by the breaking of filaments or strings which may form when adhesive-bonded substrates are separated.


  • subject
    Telegraphing

    A condition in a laminate or other type of composite construction in which irregularities, imperfections, or patterns of an inner layer are visibly transmitted to the surface.


  • subject
    Temperature, curing

    The temperature to which an adhesive or an assembly is subjected to cure the adhesive.


  • subject
    Temperature, drying

    The temperature to which an adhesive on a substrate or in an assembly, or the assembly itself is subjected to dry the adhesive.


  • subject
    Temperature, maturing

    The temperature, as a function of time and bonding condition, that produces desired characteristics in bonded components.


  • subject
    Temperature, setting

    The temperature to which an adhesive or an assembly is subjected to set the adhesive.


  • subject
    Tensile strength

    Resistance of a material to a tensile force (a stretch). The cohesive strength of a material expressed in psi.


  • subject
    Themolabel

    A pressure sensitive temperature measuring device that can be placed on a panel prior to pressing to measure maximum press or panel temperature.


  • subject
    Thermocouple

    A device designed to measure temperature by means of voltage generated in a joint of two dissimilar metals.


  • subject
    Thermoplastic, (adjective)

    Capable of being repeatedly softened by heat and hardened by cooling.


  • subject
    Thermoplastic, (noun)

    A material that will repeatedly soften when heated and harden when cooled.


  • subject
    Thermoset

    A material that will undergo or has undergone a chemical reaction by the action of heat, catalysts, ultraviolet light, etc., leading to a relatively infusible state.


  • subject
    Thermoset, state of

    Pertaining to the state of a resin in which it is relatively infusible.


  • subject
    Thermosetting

    Having the property of undergoing a chemical reaction by the action of heat, catalysts, ultraviolet light, etc., leading to a relatively infusible state.


  • subject
    Thinner

    A volatile liquid added to an adhesive to modify the consistency or other properties.


  • subject
    Thixotropic

    Non-sagging. A material which maintains its shape unless agitated. A thixotropic sealant can be placed in a joint in a vertical wall and will maintain its shape without sagging during the curing process.


  • subject
    Time, assembly

    The time interval between the spreading of the adhesive on the substrate and the application of pressure or heat, or both, to the assembly. Same as closed assembly time.


  • subject
    Time, curing

    The period of time during which an assembly is subject to heat or pressure, or both, to cure the adhesive.


  • subject
    Time, drying

    The period of time during which an adhesive on a substrate or an assembly is allowed to dry with or without the application of heat or pressure, or both.


  • subject
    Time, joint conditioning

    The time interval between the removal of the joint from conditions of heat or pressure, or both, used to accomplish bonding and the attainment of approximately maximum bond strength. Sometimes called joint aging time.


  • subject
    Time, setting

    The period of time during which an assembly is subjected to heat or pressure, or both to set the adhesive.


  • subject
    TLV

    Threshold Limit Value set by the ACGIH.


  • subject
    Toxic

    Poisonous or dangerous to humans by swallowing, inhalation, or contact resulting in eye or skin irritation.


  • subject
    Trade name

    Name given to a product by manufacturer or supplier.


  • subject
    Trade secret

    Confidential information that gives the owner an advantage over competitors.


  • subject
    Triple Chip Saw

    A saw using three chips and a raker to let each chip do a third of the cutting. This saw is used for trimming because of the smooth cut ft produces.


  • subject
    TSCA

    Toxic Substance Control Act. Part of the EPA.


  • subject
    TWA

    Time weighted average.


  • subject
    Ultimate elongation

    Elongation at failure.


  • subject
    Ultraviolet light

    Part of the light spectrum. Ultraviolet rays can cause chemical changes in rubbery materials.


  • subject
    Urethane

    A family of polymers ranging from rubbery to brittle. Usually formed by the reaction of a diisocyanate with a hydroxyl.


  • subject
    Urethane

    See Polyurethane


  • subject
    UV

    Ultraviolet Light.


  • subject
    Vacuum Press

    A press designed for laminating or veneering in which the panel is placed inside of a flexible bag connected to a vacuum pump.


  • subject
    Vapor Density

    The weight of a vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of air.


  • subject
    Vapor Pressure

    The pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above its own liquid in a closed container.


  • subject
    Vehicle

    The liquid component of a material.


  • subject
    Veneer

    A thin (usually less that 1/8" thick) piece of wood.


  • subject
    Viscosity

    The ratio of the shear stress existing between laminae of moving fluid and the rate of shear between these laminae.


  • subject
    V-joint

    A glue joint in which one side is thicker than the other as a result of poor machining or uneven application of pressure.


  • subject
    Volatile organic compound (VOC)

    Any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, ammonium carbonate, and excluding any "exempt compound" which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions. The VOC is a measured or calculated number which reflects the amount of volatile organic material that is released from a product as it dries. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to 10 times higher) than outdoors. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions.


  • subject
    Volatility

    Measure of a liquid's tendency to evaporated at room conditions.


  • subject
    Volt

    The electromotive force required to produce one ampere of current through one ohm of resistance. (V)


  • subject
    Vulcanization

    A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of a rubber are changed in the direction of decreased plastic flow, less surface tackiness, and increased tensile strength by reacting it with sulfur or other suitable agents.


  • subject
    Vulcanize

    To subject to vulcanization.


  • subject
    Warp

    A significant variation from the original, true, or plane surface.


  • subject
    Watt

    A unit of electric power. The product of a volt times an ampere.


  • subject
    Webbing

    Filaments or threads that may form when adhesive transfer surfaces are separated.


  • subject
    Wood failure

    The rupturing of wood fibers in strength tests on bonded specimens, usually expressed as the percentage of the total area involved which shows such failure.


  • subject
    Wood welder

    Small hand-held radio frequency unit generally used for assembly gluing.


  • subject
    Wood, built-up laminated

    An assembly made by joining layers of lumber with mechanical fastenings so that the grain of all laminations is essentially parallel.


  • subject
    Working life

    The period of time during which an adhesive, after mixing with catalyst, solvent, or other compounding ingredients, remains suitable for use.


  • subject
    X (Reactance)

    Variable for Electrical Reactance (Opposition to the flow of alternating current).


  • subject
    Yield

    The percent of usable, defect-free lumber that can be cut from a rough cutting, board, or bundle of lumber.


  • subject
    Yield value

    The stress (either normal or shear) at which a marked increase in deformation occurs without an increase in load.


  • subject
    Z (Impedance)

    Variable for Electrical Impedance (The opposition a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current) expressed in ohms.


  • subject
    Zero Emissions

    100% effective use of all output waste with none being sent to a landfill or incineration.